Creating and signing a bitcoin transaction from scratch

In the one of the the last posts in this series, we have been able to successfully verify an existing bitcoin transaction. With the understanding of how this works, we should now be able to conversely create a transaction from scratch, sign it and publish it in the bitcoin network. Given an amount that we…More

Docker internals: networking part II

In this post, we will look in more detail at networking with Docker if communication between a Docker container and either the host or the outside world is involved. It turns out that in these cases, the Linux Netfilter/iptables facility comes into play. This post is not meant to be an introduction into iptables, and…More

Docker internals: networking part I

In this post, we will investigate one of the more complex topics when working with Docker – networking. We have already seen in the previous post that namespaces can be used to isolate networking resources used by different containers as well as resources used by containers from those used by the host system. However, by…More

Setting up and testing our bitcoin network

In the last post in my series on bitcoin and the blockchain, we have successfully “dockerized” the bitcoin core reference implementation and have built the bitcoin-alpine docker container that contains a bitcoin server node on top of the Alpine Linux distribution. In this post, we will use this container image to build up and initialize…More

Docker internals: process isolation with namespaces and cgroups

A couple of years back, when I first looked into Docker in more detail, I put together a few pages on how Docker is utilizing some Linux kernel technologies to realize process isolation. Recently I have been using Docker again, so I thought it would be a good point in time to dig out some…More

Building a bitcoin container with Docker

When we are playing with bitcoin transactions, we need some playground where making a mistake does not cost us real bitcoins and therefore money. In addition, we might want to play around with more than one bitcoin server to see how networkings works and how the messages are exchanged in the bitcoin peer-to-peer network. There…More

Restricted Boltzmann machines

In the previous post, we have seen that a Boltzmann machine as studied so far suffers from two deficiencies. First, training is very slow as we have to run a Gibbs sampler until convergence for every iteration of the gradient descent algorithm. Second, we can only see the second moments of the data distribution and…More

Signing and verifying bitcoin transactions

If you have followed my blockchain posts so far, you know how to create bitcoin transactions by assembling transaction inputs and transaction outputs into a transaction data structure and serializing it. However, there is one subtlety that we have ignored so far – what exactly do you sign? You cannot sign the entire bitcoin transaction,…More