Learning Kafka with Python – the basics

More or less by accident, I recently took a closer look at Kafka, trying to understand how it is installed, how it works and how the Python API can be used to write Kafka applications with Python. So I decided its time to create a series of blog posts on Kafka to document my learnings and to (hopefully) give you a quick start if you plan to get to know Kafka in a bit more detail. Today, we take a first look at Kafkas architecture before describing the installation in the next post.

What is Kafka?

Kafka is a system for the distributed processing of messages and streams which is maintained as Open Source by the Apache Software foundation. Initially, Kafka was develop by LinkedIn and open-sourced in 2011. Kafka lets applications store data in streams (comparable to a message queue, more on that later), retrieve data from streams and process data in streams.

From the ground up, Kafka has been designed as a clustered system to achieve scalability and reliability. Kafka stores its data on all nodes in a cluster using a combination of sharding (i.e. distributing data across nodes) and replication (i.e. keeping the same record redundantly on several nodes to avoid data loss if a nodes goes down). Kafka clusters can reach an impressive size and throughput and can be employed for a variety of use cases (see for instance this post,this post or this posts to get an idea). Kafka uses another distributed system – Apache ZooKeeper – to store metadata in a reliable way and to synchronize the work of the various nodes in a cluster.

Topics and partitions

Let us start to take a look at some of the core concepts behind Kafka. First, data in Kafka is organized in entities called topics. Roughly speaking, topics are a bit like message queues. Applications called producers write records into a topic which is then stored by Kafka in a highly fault-tolerant and scalable way. Other applications, called consumers, can read records from a topic and process them.

Topic

You might have seen similar diagrams before, at least if you have ever worked with messaging systems like RabbitMQ, IBM MQ Series or ActiveMQ. One major difference between these systems and Kafka is that a topic is designed to be a persistent entity with an essentially unlimited history. Thus, while in other messaging systems, messages are typically removed from a queue when they have been read or expired, Kafka records are kept for a potentially very long time (even though you can of course configure Kafka to remove old records from a topic after some time). This is why the data structure that Kafka uses to store the records of a topic is called a log – conceptually, this is like a log file into which you write records sequentially and which you clean up from time to time, but from which you rarely ever delete records programmatically.

That looks rather simple, but there is more to it – partitions. We have mentioned above that Kafka uses sharding to distribute data across several nodes. To be able to implement this, Kafka somehow needs to split the data in a topic into several entities which can then be placed on different nodes. This entity is called a partition. Physically, a partition is simply a directory on one of the nodes, and the data in a partition is split into several files called segments.

Partitions

Of course, clients (i.e. producers and consumers) do not write directly into these files. Instead, there is a daemon running on each node, called the Kafka broker, which is maintaining the logs on this node. Thus if a producer wants to write into a topic, it will talk to the Broker responsible for the logs on the target node (which depends on the partition, as we will see in later post when we discuss producers in more detail), send the data to the Broker, and the Broker will store the data by appending it to the log. Similarly, a consumer will ask a Broker to retrieve data from a log (with Kafka, consumers pull for data, in contrast to some other messaging systems where data is pushed out to a consumer).

Records in a log are always read and written in batches, not as individual records. A batch consists of some metadata, like the number of records in the batch, and a couple of records. Each record again starts with a short header, followed by a record key and the record payload.

It is important to understand that in Kafka, the record key is NOT identifying a record uniquely. Actually, the record key can be empty and is mainly used to determine the partition to which a record will be written (again, we will discuss this in more detail in the post on producers). Instead, a record is identified by its offset within a partition. Thus if a consumer wants to read a specific record, it needs to specify the topic, the partition number and the offset of the record within the partition. The offset is simply an integer starting at zero which is increased by one for every new record in the topic and serves as a unique, primary key within this partition (i.e. it is not unique across partitions).

Replication, leaders and controllers

Sharding is one pattern that Kafka uses to distribute records across nodes. Within a topic, each partition will be placed on a different node (unless of course the number of nodes is smaller than the number of partitions, in which case some nodes will hold more than one partition). This allows us to scale a Kafka cluster horizontally and to maintain topics that exceed the storage capacity of a single node.

But what if a node goes down? In this case, all data on that node might be lost (in fact, Kafka heavily uses caching and will not immediately flush to disk when a new record is written, so if a node comes down, you will typically lose data even if your file system survives the crash). To avoid data loss in that case, Kafka replicates partitions across nodes. Specifically, for each partition, Kafka will nominate a partition leader and one or more followers. If, for instance, you configure a topic with a replication factor of three, then each partition will have one leader and two followers. All of those three brokers will maintain a copy of the partition. A producer and a consumer will always talk to the partition leader, and when data is written to a partition, it will be synced to all followers.

So let us assume that we are running a cluster with three Kafka nodes. One each node, there is a broker managing the logs on this node. If we now have a topic with two partitions and a replication factor of three, then each of the two partitions will be stored three times, once by the leader and two times on one of the broker nodes which are followers for this topic. This could lead to an assignment of partitions and replicas to nodes as shown below.

Replication

If in this situation one of the nodes, say node 1, goes down, then two things will happen. First, Kafka will elect a new leader for partition 0, say node 2. Second, it will ask a new node to create a replica for partition 1, as (even though node 1 was not the leader for partition 1) we now have only one replica for partition 1 left. This process is called partition reassignment.

To support this process, one of the Kafka brokers will be elected as the controller. It is the responsibility of the controller to detect failed brokers and reassign the leadership for the affected partitions.

Producers and consumers

In fact, the process of maintaining replicas is much more complicated than this simple diagram suggests. One of the major challenges is that it can of course happen that a record has been received by the leader and not yet synchronized to all replicas when the leader dies. Will these messages be lost? As often with Kafka, the answer is “it depends on the configuration” and we will learn more about this in one of the upcoming posts.

We have also not yet said anything about the process of consuming from a topic. Of course, in most situations, you will have more than one consumer, either because there is more than one application interested in getting the data or because we want to scale horizontally within an application. Here, the concept of a consumer group comes into play, which roughly is the logical equivalent of an application in Kafka. Within a consumer group, we can have as many consumers as the topic has partitions, and each partition will be read by only one consumer. For consumers, the biggest challenge is to keep track of the messages already read, which is of course essential if we want to implement guarantees like at-least-once or even exactly-once delivery. Kafka offers several mechanisms to deal with this problem, and we will discuss them in depth in a separate post on consumers.

In the next post of this series, we will leave the theory behind for the time being and move on to the installation process, so that you can bring up your own cluster in virtual machines on your PC to start playing with Kafka.

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