Smart contract security – some known issues

Smart contracts are essentially immutable programs that are designed to handle valuable assets on the blockchain and are mostly written in a programming language that has been around for a bit more than five years and is still rapidly evolving. That sounds a bit dangerous, and in fact the short history of the Ethereum blockchain is full of notable examples that demonstrate how smart contracts can be exploited to steal money. In this post, we will look at a few known security issues that you should try to avoid.

Background – receiving payments with Solidity

Not quite surprisingly, most exploits that we have seen that target smart contracts are somehow related to those parts of a contract that makes payments, so let us first try to make sure that we understand how payments are handled in Solidity.

First, recall that as any other address, a contract address has a balance and can therefore receive and transfer Ether. On the level of the Ethereum virtual machine (EVM), this is rather straightforward. Whenever a smart contract is called, be it from an EOA or another contract, the message call specifies a value. This is the amount of Ether (in Wei) that should be transferred as part of the contract execution. Very early in the processing, before any contract code is actually executed, this amount is transferred from the balance of the caller to the balance of the callee (unless, of course, the balance of the caller is not sufficient).

In Solidity, the situation is a bit more complicated. To see why, let us first imagine that you write and deploy a smart contract and then someones transfers Ether to the contract address. That amount is then added to the balance of the contract, and to access it, you would either need to submit a transaction signed with the private key of the contract address, or the contract itself needs to implement a function that can transfer the Ether to some other address, preferrably an EOA address. Now, a smart contract address has no associated private key – it is the result of a calculation at the time the contract is created, not a key generation process. So the only way to use Ether that is held by a contract is to invoke a function of the contract that transfers it out of the contract again. Thus if you accidentally transfer Ether to a smart contract which does not have such a function, maybe because it was never designed to receive Ether, the Ether is lost forever.

To avoid this, the designers of Solidity have decided that contract functions that can receive Ether need to be clearly marked as being able to handle Ether by declaring them as payable. In fact, if a contract method is not marked as being payable, the compiler will generate code that, if that method is called, checks if the message call specifies a non-zero value, i.e. if Ether should be transferred as part of the call. If yes, this code will revert the execution so that the transfer will fail.

Apart from an ordinary function call, there are special cases that we need to handle. First, it might of course happen that a smart contract is invoked without specifying a method at all. This happens if someone simply sends Ether to a smart contract (maybe without even knowing that the target address is a smart contract) and leaves the data field in the transaction (which, as we know, contains a hash of the target function to be called) empty. To handle this case, Solidity defines a special function receive. If this function is present in a contract, and the contract is called without specifying a target function, this method will be executed.

A similar mechanism exists to cover the case that a contract is invoked with a target function that does not exist or is invoked with no target function and no receive function exists. This special function is called the fallback function (in previous versions of Solidity, fallback and receive functions were identical). If none of these fallback functions is present, the execution will fail.

Send and transfer

Having discussed how a smart contract can receive Ether, let us now discuss how a smart contract can actually send Ether. Solidity offers different ways to do this. First, there is the send method. This is a method of an address object in Solidity and can be used to transfer a certain amount of Ether from the contract address to an arbitrary address. So you could do something like

address payable receiver =  payable(address(0xFC2a2b9A68514E3315f0Bd2a29e900DC1a815a1D));        
// Be careful, do NOT do this!

to send 100 Wei to the target address receiver (note that in recent versions of Solidity, an address to which you want to send Ether needs to be marked as payable). However, this code already contains a major issue – it does not check the return value of send!

In fact, send does return true if the transfer was successful and false if the transfer failed (for instance because the current balance is not sufficient, or because the target is a smart contract without a receive or fallback function, or if the target is a contract with a receive function, but this function runs out of gas). If, as in this example, you do not check the return code, a failed transfer will go unnoticed. As an illustration, let us consider a famous example where exactly this happened – the King of the Ether contract . The idea of this contract was that by paying a certain amount of Ether, you could claim a virtual throne and be appointed “King of the Ether”. If someone else now pays an amount which is the amount which you have paid times a factor, this person would become the new King, and you would receive the amount that you invested minus a fee. In the source code of v0.4 of the contract, the broken section looks as follows (I have added a few comments not present in the original source code to make it easier to read the snippet without having the full context)

// we get to this point in the code if someone has paid enough to
// become the new king
// valuePaid is the Ether paid by the current king
// wizardCommission is a fee that remains in the account
// of the contract and can be claimed by the contract owner (wizard) 
uint compensation = valuePaid - wizardCommission;

// In its initial state, the current monarch is the wizard
// so we check for this
if (currentMonarch.etherAddress != wizardAddress) {
  // here we send the the Ether minus the fees back 
  // to the current king
} else {
  // When the throne is vacant, the fee accumulates for the wizard.

Note how send is used without checking the return code. What actually happened is that some people who held the throne did apparently use what is called a contract based wallet, i.e. a wallet that manages your Ether in a smart contract. Thus, the address of the current king (currentMonarch) was actually a smart contract. If a smart contract receives Ether, then, as we have seen above, it will execute a function. Now send only makes a very small amount of gas (2300 to be precise) available to the called contract (this is called the gas stipend, and we will dive into this and how a call actually works under the hood in a later post), which was not sufficient to run the code. So the called contract failed, but, as the return value was not checked, the calling contract continued, effectively stealing the compensation instead of paying it out.

The withdrawal pattern

It is interesting to discuss how this can be fixed. The obvious idea might be to check the return value and revert the transaction if it is false. Alternatively, one can use the second method that Solidity offers to transfer Ether – the transfer method, which will revert if the transfer fails. This, however, results in a new problem, as it allows for a denial-of-service attack.

To see this, suppose that a contract successfully claims the throne, and then someone else tries to become the new king, resulting in the execution of the code above. Suppose we use transfer instead of send. Now the contract which is the current king might be a malicious contract with a receive function that always reverts, or no receive function at all. Then, any attempt to become the new king will be reverted, and the contract is stuck forever.

This is a very general problem that you will face whenever a method of a smart contract calls another contract – you can not rely on the other contract to cooperate and it is dangerous to assume that the call will be successful. Therefore, the Solidity documentation recommends a pattern known as the withdrawal pattern. In our specific case, this would work as follows. Instead of immediately paying out the compensation, you would store the claim in the contract state and allow the previous king to call a withdraw method that does the transfer, maybe like this.

// this replaces currentKing.send(compensation)
// code goes on...

// a new function that allows the current king to collect the compensation
function withdraw() public {
  uint256 claim = claims[msg.sender];
  if (claim > 0) {
    claims[msg.sender] = 0;
  else {
    revert("Unjustified claim");

Why would this help? Suppose an attacker implements a contract that reverts if Ether is sent to it. If this contract is the current king and someone else claims the throne, enthroning the new king will work, because the transfer is contained in the separate function withdraw. If now the attacker invokes this function, it will still revert, but this will not impact the functionality of the contract of other users, so not denial of service (impacting anyone except the attacker) will result.

Reentrancy attacks and TheDAO

Let us suppose for a moment that in the code snippet above, we had chosen a slightly different order of the statements, and, in addition, had decided to use a low-level call to transfer the money, like this

(bool success, bytes memory data) ={value: claim}("");
require(success, "Failed to send Ether");
claims[msg.sender] = 0;

Here, we use the call method of an address, which has the advantage over transfer that it does not only make the minimum of 2300 units of gas available to the caller, but the full gas remaining at this point. This makes the contract less vulnerable to errors resulting out of non-trivial receive functions, which is the reason why it is sometimes recommended to use this approach instead of transfer.

This would in fact make our contract again vulnerable, this time to a class of attacks known as re-entrancy attack. To exploit this vulnerability, an attacker would have to prepare a malicious contract that enthrones itself and whose receive function calls the withdraw function again (but with a depth of at most one). If no someone else has claimed the throne and the malicious contract calls withdraw, the following things would happen.

  1. The malicious contract calls withdraw for the first time
  2. withdraw initiates the transfer of the current claim to the malicious contract
  3. the receive function of the malicious contract is invoked
  4. the receive function calls withdraw once more
  5. at this point in time, the variable claims[msg.sender] still has its original, non-zero value
  6. so the same transfer is made again
  7. both transfers succeed, and the claim is overwritten by zero twice

As a result, the claim is transferred twice to the malicious contract (assuming, of course, that the King of the Ether contract has a sufficient balance). Of course instead of invoking the function twice, you can let the receive function call back into the contract several times, thus multiplying the amount transferred by the number of calls, limited only by the stack size and the available gas. This sort of vulnerability was the root cause for the famous theDAO hack, which eventually lead to a fork of the Ethereum block chain.

Note that in this case, using transfer instead of call would actually protect against this sort of attack, at the second call into the King of the Ether contract would require more gas than transfer makes available.

Create2 and the illusion of immutable contracts

Smart contracts are immutable – are they? Well, actually no – there are several ways to change the behaviour of a smart contract after it has been deployed. First, you could of course build a switch into your contract that only the owner can control. A bit more advanced, a contract can act as a proxy, delegating calls to another contract, and the contract owner could change the address of the target contract while keeping the address of the proxy the same.

An additional option has been created with EIP-1014. This proposal, which went live with the Constantinople hard fork in 2019, introduced a new opcode CREATE2 which allows for the creation of a contract with a predictable address. Recall that when a contract is created, the contract address is determined from the address of the owner and the current nonce. This makes it difficult to predict the address of the contract, unless you use an account for contract creation whose nonce is kept stable. When using CREATE2 instead, the contract address is taken to be the hash value of a combination of the sender address, a salt and the init code of the contract to be created.

The problem with this is, however, that the init code does not fully determine the runtime bytecode. Recall that the init code is bytecode that is executed at deployment time, and whose return value will be stored and used as the actual contract code executed at runtime (we will see this in action in the next post). The init code could, for instance, retrieve the actual runtime bytecode by calling into another contract. If the state of this contract is changed to return a different bytecode, the init code will still be the same. Thus, by using CREATE2 repeatedly with the same init code and salt, different versions of a contract could be stored at the same address.

To avoid this, the creators of EIP-1014 introduced a safeguard – if the target address already contains code or has a non-zero nonce, the invocation will fail. However, there is a loophole, which works as follows.

  1. Prepare an init bytecode that get the actual runtime bytecode from a different contract, as outlined above
  2. Use CREATE2 to deploy this runtime bytecode to a specific address
  3. In the runtime bytecode, include a method that executes the SELFDESTRUCT opcode (protected by the condition that it only executes if the sender address is an address that you control). This is an opcode that will effectively wipe out the code of a contract and set the nonce of the contract address back to zero
  4. Motivate people to deposit something of value in your contract, maybe Ether or token
  5. At any point in time, you could now use this method to remove the existing contract. At this point, the nonce and code are both zero. You could now invoke CREATE2 once more to deploy a new contract to the same address with a different runtime bytecode, which maybe steals whatever assets have been deposited in the old contract

In this way, the functionality of a smart contract can be changed without anyone noticing it. Of course, this only works under specific conditions, the most important one being that the contract needs to contain the SELFDESTRUCT opcode. The only real protection is to have a look at the contract source code (or event at the runtime bytecode) before trusting it and become alerted if the contract has a SELFDESTRUCT in it (or uses an instruction like DELEGATECALL to invoke code that contains a SELFDESTRUCT). It seems that Etherscan is now able to track contract recreation using CREATE2, here is an example from the Ropsten test network, note the “Reinit” flag being displayed on the contract tab, and here is an example from mainnet.

This concludes our post for today. There are many more security considerations and pitfalls that you should be aware of whenever you develop a smart contract that is going to be used on a real network with real money being involved. In the next section, I have listed a few references that you might want to consult to learn more about smart contract security. I hope you found this interesting and see you again in the next post, in which we will take a closer look at how Solidity translates your source code into EVM bytecode.


Here is a list of references that I found useful while collecting the material for this post.

  1. OpenZeppelin has a rather comprehensive list of post-mortems on its web site
  2. Consensys maintains a collection of best practises for smart contracts that explain common vulnerabilities and how to protect against them
  3. The Solidity documentation contains a section on security considerations
  4. This paper contains a classification of common vulnerabilities and discusses which of them can be avoided by using Vyper instead of Solidity as a smart contract language
  5. A similar list can be found in this conference paper
  6. The implications of the CREATE2 opcode have been discussed in detail here
  7. Finally, the documentation on contains a section on security considerations as well


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