Kubernetes 101 – creating pods and deployments

In the last posts, we have seen how we can set up a Kubernetes cluster on Amazons EKS platform and spin up our first nodes. Today, we will create our first workloads and see pods and deployments in action.

Creating pods

We have already introduces pods in an earlier post as the smallest units that Kubernetes manages. To create pods, there are several options. First, we can use the kubectl command line tool and simply pass the description of the pod as arguments. Second, we can use a so-called manifest file which contains the specification of the pod, which has the obvious advantage that this file can be reused, put under version control, developed and tested, according to the ideas of the “Infrastructure as a code” approach. A manifest file can either be provided in JSON format or using the YAML markup language. And of course, we can again use the Kubernetes API directly, for instance by programming against the Python API.

In this post, we will demonstrate how to create pods using manifest file in YAML format and Python scripts. We start with a YAML file which looks as follows.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: naked-pod-demo
  namespace: default
  - name: naked-pod-demo-ctr
    image: nginx

Let us go through this file step by step to understand what it means. First, this is a YAML file, and YAML is essentially a format for specifying key-value pairs. Our first key is apiVersion, with value v1. This is the first line in all manifest files and simply specifies the API version that we will use.

The next key – kind – specifies the type of Kubernetes resource that we want to access, in this case a pod. The next key is metadata. The value of this key is a dictionary that again has two keys – name and namespace. The name is the name that our pod will have. The namespace key specifies the namespace in which the pod will start (namespaces are a way to segment Kubernetes resources and are a topic for a future post, for the time being we will simply use the so-called default namespace).

The next key – spec now contains the actual specification of the pod. This is where we tell Kubernetes what our pod should be running. Remember that a pod can contain one or more application containers. Therefore there is a key containers, which, as a value, has a list of containers. Each container has a name and further attributes.

In our case, we create one container and specify that the image should be nginx. At this point, we can specify every image that we could also specify if we did a docker run locally. In this case, Kubernetes will pull the nginx image from the default docker registry and run it.

So let us now trigger the creation of a pod by passing this specification to kubectl. To do this, we use the following command (assuming that you have saved the file as naked_pod.yaml, the reason for this naming will become clear later).

kubectl apply -f naked_pod.yaml

After a few seconds, Kubernetes should have had enough time to start up the container, so let us use kubectl to check whether the node has been created.

$ kubectl get pods 
naked-pod-demo   1/1     Running   0          38s

Nice. Let us take a closer look at this pod. If you run kubectl get pods -o wide, kubectl will give you a bit more information on the pod, including the name of the node on which the pod is running. So let us SSH into this node. To easily log into one of your nodes (the first node in this case, change Node to 1 to log into the second node), you can use the following sequence of commands. This will open the SSH port for all instances in the cluster for incoming connections from the your current IP address. Note that we use the cluster name as a filter, so you might need to replace myCluster in the commands below by the name of your cluster.

$ Node=0
$ IP=$(aws ec2 describe-instances --output text --filters Name=tag-key,Values=kubernetes.io/cluster/myCluster Name=instance-state-name,Values=running --query Reservations[$Node].Instances[0].PublicIpAddress)
$ SEC_GROUP_ID=$(aws ec2 describe-instances  --output text --filters Name=tag-key,Values=kubernetes.io/cluster/myCluster Name=instance-state-name,Values=running --query Reservations[0].Instances[0].SecurityGroups[0].GroupId)
$ myIP=$(wget -q -O- https://ipecho.net/plain)
$ aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress --group-id $SEC_GROUP_ID --port 22 --protocol tcp --cidr $myIP/32
$ ssh -i ~/eksNodeKey.pem ec2-user@$IP

Use this – or your favorite method (if you use my script up.sh to start the cluster, it will already open ssh connections to both nodes for you) – to log into the node on which the pod has been scheduled by Kubernetes and execute a docker ps there. You should see that, among some management containers that Kubernetes brings up, a container running nginx appears.

Now let us try a few things. First, apply the YAML file once more. This will not bring up a second pod. Instead, Kubernetes realizes that a pod with this name is already running and tells you that no change has been applied. This makes sense – in general, a manifest file specifies a target state, and we are already in the target state, so there is no need for action.

Now, on the EKS worker node on which the pod is running, use docker kill to actually stop the container. Then wait for a few seconds and do a docker ps again. Surprisingly, you will see the container again, but with a different container ID. What happened?

The answer is hidden in the logfiles of the component of Kubernetes that controls a single node – the kubelet. On the node, the kubelet is started using systemctl (you might want to verify this in the AWS provided bootstrap.sh script). So to access its logs, we need

$ journalctl -u kubelet

Close to the end of the logfile, you should see a line stating that … container … is dead, but RestartPolicy says that we should restart it. In fact, the kubelet constantly monitors the running containers and looks for deviations from the target state. The restart policy is a piece of the specification of a pod that tells the kubelet how to handle the case that a container has died. This might be perfectly fine (for batch jobs), but the default restart policy is Always, so the the kubelet will restart our container.

This is nice, but now let us simulate a more drastic event – the node dies. So on the AWS console, locate the node on which the pod is running and terminate the pod.

After a few seconds, you will see that a new node is created, thanks to the AWS auto-scaling group that controls our nodes. However, if you check the status of the pods using kubectl get pods, you will see that Kubernetes did not reschedule the pod on a different node, nor does it restart the pod once the replacement node is up and running again. So Kubernetes takes care (via the kubelet) of the containers that belong to a pod on a per-node level, but not on a per-cluster level.

In productions, this is of course typically not what you want – instead, it would be nice if Kubernetes could monitor the pods for you and restart them automatically in case of failure. This is what a deployment does.

Replica sets and deployments

A deployment is an example for a more general concept in Kubernetes – controllers. Basically, this is a component that constantly monitors the cluster state and makes changes if needed to get back into the target state. One thing that a deployment does is to automatically bring up a certain number of instances called replicas of a Docker image and distribute the resulting pods across the cluster. Once the pods are running, the deployment controller will monitor them and take action of the number of pods running deviates from the desired number of pods. As an example, let us consider the following manifest file.

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: alpine
      app: alpine
  replicas: 2
        app: alpine
        - name: alpine-ctr
          image: httpd:alpine

The first line is specifying the API version as usual (though we need to use a different value for the API version, the additional apps is due to the fact that the Deployment API is part of the API group apps). The second line designates the object that we want to create as a deployment. We then again have a name which is part of the metadata, followed by the actual specification of the deployment.

The first part of this specification is the selector. To understands its role, recall that a deployment is supposed to make sure that a specified number of pods of a given type are running. Now, the term “of a given type” has to be made precise, and this is what the selector is being used for. All pods which are created by our deployment will have a label with key “app” and value “alpine”. The selector field specifies that all pods with that label are to be considered as pods controlled by the deployment, and our controller will make sure that there are always exactly two pods with this label.

The second part of the specification is the template that the deployment uses to create the pods controlled by this deployment. This looks very much like the definition of a pod as we have seen it earlier. However, the label that is specified here of course needs to match the label in the selector field (kubectl will actually warn you if this is not the case).

Let us now delete our existing pod, run this deployment and see what is happening. Save the manifest file as deployment.yaml, apply it and then list the running nodes.

$ kubectl delete -f naked_pod.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f deployment.yaml
deployment.apps/alpine created
$ kubectl get pods
NAME                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
alpine-8469fc798f-rq92t   1/1     Running   0          21s
alpine-8469fc798f-wmsqc   1/1     Running   0          21s

So two pods have been created and scheduled to nodes of our cluster. To inspect the container further, let us ask kubectl to provide all details as JSON and use the wonderful jq to process the output and extract the container information from it (you might need to install jq to run this).

$ kubectl get pods --output json | jq ".items[0].spec.containers[0].image"

So we see that the pods and the containers have been created according to our specification and run the httpd:alpine docker image.

Let us now repeat our experiment from before and stop one of the node. To do this, we first extract the instance ID of the first instance using the AWS CLI and then use the AWS CLI once more to stop this instances.

$ instanceId=$(aws ec2 describe-instances --output text --filters Name=tag-key,Values=kubernetes.io/cluster/myCluster Name=instance-state-name,Values=running --query Reservations[0].Instances[0].InstanceId)
$ aws ec2 terminate-instances --instance-ids $instanceId

After some time, Kubernetes will find that the instance has died, and if you run a kubectl get nodes, you will find that the node has disappeared. If you now run kubectl get nodes -o wide, however, you will still find two pods, but now both are running on the remaining node. So the deployment controller has replaced the pod that went down with our node by a new pod on the remaining node. This behaviour is in fact not realized by the deployment, but by the underlying ReplicaSet. We could also create a replica set directly, but a deployment offers some additional features, like the possibility to run a rolling upgrade automatically.

Creating deployments in Python

Having discussed how to create a deployment from a YAML file, let us again do the same thing in Python. The easiest approach is to walk our way upwards through the YAML file. After the usual preparations (imports, loading the configuration), we therefore start with the specification of the container.

import client
container = client.V1Container(

This is similar to our YAML file – in each pod, we want to run a container with the httpd:alpine image. Having the container object, we can now create the template section.

template = client.V1PodTemplateSpec(
                   labels={"app": "alpine"}),

Again, note the label that we will use later to select the pods that our deployment controller is supposed to watch. Now we put the template into the specification part of our controller.

selector = client.V1LabelSelector(
              match_labels={"app" : "alpine"})
spec = client.V1DeploymentSpec(

And finally, we can create the actual deployment object and ask Kubernetes to apply it – the complete Python script is available for download here).

deployment = client.V1Deployment(

              namespace="default", body=deployment)

This completes our post for today. We now know how to create pods and deployments to run Docker images in our cluster. In the next few posts, we will look at networking in Kubernetes – services, load balancers, ingress and all that.

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